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Weight Loss

Weight loss is a very widespread phenomenon in our society. Whether it's a purely aesthetic or health reasons, weight loss is commonly controlled by diet and, rarely, surgery.

Many factors come into play when it comes to losing weight by itself or under supervision of a specialist. There are tons of diets and diets of all kinds, from the narrowing of the stomach to the method of the day. In all cases, the effective weight loss and requires a healthy body.


Fats (lipids) are used to store energy in the body, such as sugars (carbohydrates). If sugars are used to store a small amount of usable energy rapidly, the fat can store a lot of energy in little space. They are stored in cells called adipocytes. When they store more fat than is spent, they grow and create overweight. If fat cells reach saturation and must increase to get to store fat, it is called obesity.

There are different methods to assess the weight of an individual. Besides the mass, it is to assess whether the weight / height is suitable. The evaluation method most common is the body mass index (BMI). It is obtained by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters) of the person. A normal BMI for adults is between 18.5 and 25. We'll talk about overweight between 25 and 30, obesity beyond 30 and morbid obesity beyond 40. There is another calculation of overweight: the ratio waist / hips. For a healthy weight, it must be less than 1 in men and 0.85 in women. It should be noted that in addition to the different morphology of the man and woman, fats are also distributed differently in both. First, the fats are from 20 to 25% by weight of the woman, then they are responsible for only 10 to 15% by weight of the man. This weight typically accumulates on the thorax and abdomen of the man on the hips and thighs in women. Finally, in both cases, being overweight is harmful and can cause cardiovascular problems for humans and joints for the woman. one, adding possible  joints problems for women.


Being overweight is often the result of an imbalance between energy intake and the sum total energy expenditure. If the sum of calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins is greater than energy expenditure, the body stores a portion of the intake as fat in adipose tissue.

As for food, the amount is often not the only variable to control. The quality is great. It is important to distinguish between energy intake of a complete sugar versus a refined or cold pressed oil compared to those extracted heat, eliminating much of the beneficial contributions, for example.


The types of lipids in food are as follows, with the following properties for the body:

  • Cholesterol (to 2 / 3 made by the liver) cholesterol provided by food is generally not harmful. However the excessive production (or low) by the liver from fat consumed, increases cardiovascular risk. In blood tests, one must also distinguish the "good cholesterol" (HDL) and "bad" (LDL), only involved in cardiovascular disease. It is the ratio between the two to watch, more than the total cholesterol.

  • Phyto-sterols (oils, cocoa, fruits, vegetables): Regulation of cholesterol levels. Anti-inflammatory properties. Reduced risk of cancer and prostate Hyperblast. Strengthening the immune system. Increased levels of DHEA.


  • Alpha (Vitamin E), Beta, Gamma, Delta oils (except coconut and palm): Antioxidants decrease cardiovascular risk and cancer

  • Phospholipids and sphingolipids (egg, soy, wheat germ): Useful in the brain (neurons) and cell membranes.

Fatty acids:

  • Saturated (meat, butter, cream, corn oil ...): Increased cardiovascular risk (CV) at doses consumed by the majority in most developed countries. The food industry often preferred fat butter substitute, but they are even worse for the Trans unsaturated they contain.

  • "Trans unsaturated" (Refined oils, chips and chips industry, fried foods, no butter pastry, bakery, supermarket, hard margarines, crackers, appetizer, crackers, cakes, breads, quiches, pies and pasta pie industrial, breaded products, spreads, sauces, salad dressing, mayonnaise industrial fat beef, mutton, dairy products): strong increase CV risk: rise in bad cholesterol (like butter) but also lower good!

  • "Mono unsaturated (cis)," whose O9 (Olive oil, vegetable oil, duck fat, goose, chocolate): Reduced risk CV

  • Poly-unsaturated omega-3 (nut oils, soy, canola, flaxseed, red currants, cassis, olive, oily fish, shellfish): Decrease in CV risk, but excess cardiovascular disease and immunity. The O3 O6 require sufficient in order to be assimilated, but the doses of O3 consumption in developed countries are (much) too low compared to O6.

  • Poly-unsaturated omega-6 (oil, grapeseed, sunflower, nuts, corn, soy, canola, olive, poultry fat): Decrease in CV risk, but excess cardiovascular disease and immunity. Obesity is well recognized in infants or fetuses, unable to blame lack of exercise and snacking. The food, too rich in O6, the mother is involved, even the composition of milk powders, modeled on the milk of mothers consuming too much O6.

Sugar consumption provides energy in the short term, but it can not be stored as such in the body. Part of the sugar consumed can be used immediately to provide the energy needed (in a few minutes), another part is stored in the liver and muscles (used in a few hours), and another will be transformed into fats that are stored in fat layers.

It is advisable to consume the whole cane sugar because it contains all the nutrients in the sugar cane, once processed and refined it contains from 50 to 60 times fewer minerals and no vitamin (the rapadura contains vitamins B1, B2, B5 and E).

Eat only whole sugar instead of white sugar would balance our diet providing all nutrients missing from refined sugar and greatly reduce the number of dental caries (calcium, potassium and magnesium reduces the acidity of saliva pro- bacteria).

In any case, it is important to reduce sugar consumption to a minimum: as with all simple sugars, vitamins and minerals needed to metabolize sucrose (mainly vitamin B1 and magnesium). Eating refined sugar in large quantities monopolize these essential resources and creates gaps.

An adult eats an average of 100 grams of sucrose per day, more than 70% as added processed products. However, the recommended daily intake of carbohydrates are from 200 to 250 grams, less than 10% in the form of simple carbohydrates.

Whether white or brown, sugar still contains 4000 kilocalories per kilogram or 17 000 kilojoules. In addition, it creates a dependency that may cause hypoglycemia, diabetes and obesity. Eat lots of sugary foods does not necessarily those disorders when combined with a balanced diet: A balanced diet is not based on a report simple sugars / complex sugars, but the calculation of glycemic indices of all food eaten during the day.

In a very paradoxical, some diets may promote weight gain. For example, if there is loss of muscle mass, metabolism slows and overweight back very quickly. Most of the examples related to this are plans focus on protein intake.


A person suffering from overweight (or obese) may experience several disadvantages. These are phenomena that hold constant attention of medicine and which are the subject of multiple studies.

In addition to physical problems, overweight can lead to complications psychological, social and even, in extreme cases, loss of cognitive acuity.



Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is to restrict the absorption of nutrients, decreasing, in fact, daily calorie intake. This is a heavy technique, reserved in most cases of obesity with failure of various attempts by the regime. A psychological evaluation and monitoring are required.

It includes a set of techniques that can be classified into two main types of interventions.

  • The first aimed at reducing gastric capacity, that is to say, the effective volume of the stomach and / or to reduce the rate of stomach emptying to get a feeling of fullness faster ( gastric).

The second, called mixed, associate with this restriction the creation of a gastric bypass system in the digestive tract to decrease absorption of nutrients by the intestine. These techniques are performed by incision of the abdominal wall (laparotomy), and in recent years, almost all can be performed laparoscopically.

The analysis of available data indicates that the different techniques of bariatric surgery is safe and effective.

Overall, mixed media, combining gastric restriction and intestinal malabsorption, are more effective than interventions that only reduce stomach capacity.

Laparoscopic techniques provide for their many advantages, such as reduced hospital stay, although they are not free of complications. Only two laparoscopic approaches are fairly well developed and their effects well enough known to no longer be considered experimental.

The long-term weight loss surgery significantly reduces mortality in patients who have benefited.

Patients who undergo weight loss should be monitored annually by a multidisciplinary team, in addition to the surgical team (particularly attentive to the early and late complications), including nutritionists, psychologists and medical specialists. Plastic surgery is often necessary. 

Non-drug treatments

They are, in principle, calorie restriction for weight reduction. Among the means used, there are diet, physical activity and personal support. 


A diet rich in fruits and vegetables at the base of support.

They are of several kinds:

  • Caloric restriction "balanced" and is a moderate decrease of 600 calories per day compared to the usual ration. It is she who has the best efficacy on weight because it reduces the weight of about 5 kg in one year.

  • Dietary changes without caloric restriction: reduced fat, increased fruits, grains and vegetables. The effect is small but not negligible: 2 kg a year.

  • The Mediterranean diet, which has proven itself in terms of benefit in preventing cardiovascular disease. It is suggested in patients with hypercholesterolemia, when there is coronary disease.

  • very low calorie diets: less than 800 to less than 600 kcal / d. They can be sources of deficiencies if they are extended. Even sudden death have been reported.

  • The low-fat diets where lipids represent only 10-15% of contributions.

  • Diets high protein, low carbohydrate (Atkins diet), but high in fat and protein, no restriction in calories, but that increase satiety. Serious side effects have been reported.

  • Fasting, being limited to inputs only drinks at risk on serious medical.

In practice, dietary advice without accompaniment are moderately effective and time-limited (high likelihood of weight regain). 

Physical activity

Several studies have shown that the association of physical activity on a diet is more effective than each component taken separately. It is not necessarily sporting, it is preferable to use the adapted physical activities. It is necessary to encourage regular physical activity by simple means and progressive.